• PART 6 PART 6 — Practice, Procedure And Enforcement

    • Chapter 1: Chapter 1: Practice & Procedure

      • 98. Proceedings to be held in public

        (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), or any other ADGM enactment, all hearings, including trials, shall be held in public.
        (2) The Court may make special arrangements for accommodating members of the public, if it considers it appropriate to do so.
        (3) The Court may direct that a hearing, or any part of it, be held in private if —
        (a) publicity would defeat the object of the hearing;
        (b) it involves matters relating to national security;
        (c) it involves confidential information (including information relating to personal financial matters) and publicity would damage that confidentiality;
        (d) a private hearing is necessary to protect the interests of a party or witness;
        (e) it is a hearing of an application made without notice and it would be unjust to any respondent for there to be a public hearing;
        (f) it involves uncontentious matters arising in the administration of trusts; or
        (g) the Court considers this to be necessary, in the interests of justice.
        (4) The Court may order that the identity of any party or witness must not be disclosed if it considers non-disclosure necessary —
        (a) in order to protect the interests of that party or witness; or
        (b) in the interests of justice.

      • 99. Proceedings to be conducted in English

        (1) All proceedings before any Court must be conducted in English.
        (2) For the purposes of this section "proceedings" means —
        (a) any pre-action correspondence between a party's legal or other representatives and another party, or a party's legal or other representatives and another party's legal or other representatives;
        (b) all correspondence between any or all of the parties once a claim form has been issued;
        (c) all court forms, pleadings, statements (including, but not limited to, witness statements and disclosure statements), expert reports and requests for further information;
        (d) all applications to any Court (whether made on paper or orally);
        (e) all hearings before any Judge or other officer of any Court (whether held in court or in chambers), including cross-examination of witnesses;
        (f) all orders whether drafted by any party or prepared by the Court of its own motion;
        (g) all judgments, decisions, directions or orders handed down by the Court whether orally or in writing.

      • 100. Commencing, carrying on and defending proceedings

        Subject to these Regulations, proceedings are to be commenced, carried on and defended in the manner prescribed by court procedure rules.

      • 101. Judges not to sit on appeal from their own judgments, etc.

        No Judge shall sit as a member of the Court of Appeal on the hearing of, or shall determine any application in proceedings incidental or preliminary to, an appeal from a judgment or order made in any cause or matter or by any Court of which he was a member or has had any involvement at any preliminary or interim stage.

      • 102. Sittings and vacations of the Court of Appeal

        (1) Sittings of the Court of Appeal may be held, and any other business of the Court of Appeal may be conducted, at any place in the world.
        (2) Subject to court procedure rules —
        (a) the places at which the Court of Appeal sits outside the Abu Dhabi Global Market;
        (b) the days and times at which the Court of Appeal sits at any place outside the Abu Dhabi Global Market; and
        (c) the manner in which any hearing is to be conducted (including by way of video conference, tele-conference or in person),
        shall be determined in accordance with directions given by the Chief Justice after consulting with the Chairman of the Board.
        (3) Court procedure rules may make provision for regulating the vacations to be observed by the Court of Appeal and in the offices of that Court.
        (4) Court procedure rules —
        (a) may provide for securing such sittings of the Court of Appeal during vacations as the Chief Justice may determine; and
        (b) without affecting paragraph (a), shall provide for the transaction during vacations by Judges of the Court of Appeal of all such business as that Court may require to be immediately or promptly transacted.
        (5) The Chief Justice may nominate a Judge of the ADGM Courts to exercise his functions under this section.

      • 103. Court divided in opinion

        If the Judges constituting a Full Court for the purposes of any proceedings are divided in opinion as to the judgment to be pronounced, judgment shall be pronounced according to the opinion of the majority.

      • 104. Court procedure rules, and decisions of the Court of Appeal, as to whether judgment or order is final or interim

        (1) Court procedure rules may provide for orders or judgments of any prescribed description to be treated for any prescribed purpose connected with appeals to the Court of Appeal as final or as interim.
        (2) No appeal shall lie from a decision of the Court of Appeal as to whether a judgment or order is, for any purpose connected with an appeal to that Court, final or interim.

      • 105. Business assigned to specially nominated Judges

        (1) Any business assigned, in accordance with these Regulations or any other ADGM enactment, to one or more specially nominated Judges of the Court of First Instance may —
        (a) during vacation; or
        (b) during the illness or absence of that Judge; or
        (c) for any other reasonable cause,
        be dealt with by any Judge of the Court of First Instance named for that purpose by the Chief Justice.
        (2) If at any time it appears to the Chief Justice to be desirable to do so with a view to the more convenient administration of justice, he may by order direct that business of any description which is for the time being assigned, in accordance with these Regulations or any other ADGM enactment, to one or more specially nominated Judges of the Court of First Instance shall cease to be so assigned and may be dealt with by any other one or more Judges of the Court of First Instance.
        (3) The Chief Justice may nominate a Judge of the ADGM Courts to exercise his functions under subsection (1) or (2).

      • 106. Proceedings in Court and in chambers

        Business in the Court of First Instance shall be heard and disposed of in Court except in so far as it may, under these Regulations or any other ADGM enactment, under court procedure rules or in accordance with the practice of the Court, be dealt with in chambers.

      • 107. Exercise of Court of First Instance jurisdiction otherwise than by Judges of that Court

        (1) Provision may be made by court procedure rules as to the cases in which the jurisdiction of the Court of First Instance may be exercised by —
        (a) such Recorders as the Chief Justice may from time to time nominate to deal with official referees' business; or
        (b) special referees.
        (2) Without affecting the generality of subsection (1), court procedure rules may in particular authorise any question arising in any cause or matter to be referred to a special referee for inquiry and report.
        (3) Court procedure rules shall not authorise the exercise of powers of attachment by a special referee or any officer or other staff of the Court.
        (4) Subject to subsection (5), the decision of —
        (a) any such person as mentioned in subsection (1); or
        (b) any officer or staff of the Court,
        may be called into question in such manner as may be prescribed by court procedure rules, whether by appeal to the Court of Appeal, or by an appeal or application to a Judge in Court or a Judge in chambers, or by an adjournment to a Judge in Court or a Judge in chambers.
        (5) Court procedure rules may provide either generally or to a limited extent for decisions of persons nominated under subsection (1)(a) being called into question only by appeal on a question of law.
        (6) The cases in which the jurisdiction of the Court of First Instance may be exercised by persons nominated under subsection (1)(a) shall be known as "official referees' business"; and subject to court procedure rules, the distribution of official referees' business among persons so nominated shall be determined in accordance with directions given by the Chief Justice after consulting the Board.
        (7) Any reference to an official referee in any enactment, whenever passed, or in court procedure rules or any other instrument or document, whenever made, shall, unless the context otherwise requires, be construed as, or (where the context requires) as including, a reference to a person nominated under subsection (1)(a).
        (8) The Chief Justice may nominate a Judge of the ADGM Courts to exercise his functions under subsections (1)(a) and (6).

      • 108. Assessors

        (1) In any cause or matter before the Court of First Instance, the Court may, if it thinks it expedient to do so, call in the aid of one or more assessors specially qualified, and hear and dispose of the cause or matter wholly or partially with their assistance.
        (2) The remuneration, if any, to be paid to an assessor for his services under subsection (1) in connection with any proceedings shall be determined by the Court, and shall form part of the costs of the proceedings.

      • 109. Sittings and vacations of the Court of First Instance

        (1) Sittings of the Court of First Instance may be held, and other business of the Court of First Instance may be conducted, at any place in the world.
        (2) Subject to court procedure rules —
        (a) the places at which the Court of First Instance sits outside the Abu Dhabi Global Market;
        (b) the days and times when the Court of First Instance sits at any place outside the Abu Dhabi Global Market; and
        (c) the manner in which any hearing is to be conducted (including by way of video conference, tele-conference or in person),
        shall be determined in accordance with directions by the Chief Justice after consulting the Board.
        (3) Court procedure rules may make provision for regulating the vacations to be observed by the Court of First Instance and in the offices of that Court.
        (4) Court procedure rules —
        (a) may provide for securing such sitting of the Court of First Instance during vacation as the Chief Justice may determine; and
        (b) without affecting paragraph (a), shall provide for the transaction during vacation by Judges of the Court of First Instance of all such business in the Court of First Instance as may require to be immediately or promptly transacted.
        (5) The Chief Justice may nominate a Judge of the ADGM Courts to exercise his functions under this section.

      • 110. Proof of documents bearing seal or stamp of the Courts or any office thereof

        (1) Every document purporting to be sealed or stamped with the seal or stamp of the Courts or of any office of the Courts shall be received in evidence in the Abu Dhabi Global Market without further proof.
        (2) Court procedure rules may make provision for which documents require sealing or stamping by the Courts.

      • 111. Enrolment and engrossment of instruments

        (1) The Chief Justice may make rules for authorising and regulating the enrolment or filing of instruments in the Courts, and for prescribing the form in which certificates of enrolment or filing are to be issued.
        (2) Rules made under subsection (1) shall not affect the operation of any enactment requiring or authorising the enrolment of any instrument in the Courts or prescribing the manner in which any instrument is to be enrolled there.
        (3) Any instrument which is required or authorised by or under any rules to be enrolled or engrossed in the Courts shall be deemed to have been duly enrolled or engrossed if it is written on material authorised or required by rules made under subsection (1) and has been filed or otherwise preserved in accordance with rules made under that subsection.
        (4) The Chief Justice may make rules prescribing the fees to be paid on the enrolment or filing of any instrument in the Courts, including any additional fees payable on the enrolment or filing of any instrument out of time.

      • 112. Bonds given under order of Court

        (1) A bond to be given by any person under or for the purposes of any order of the Court of First Instance or the Court of Appeal shall be given in such form and to such officer of the Court as may be prescribed and, if the Court so requires, with one or more sureties.
        (2) An officer of the Court to whom a bond is given in accordance with subsection (1) shall have power to enforce it or to assign it, pursuant to an order of the Court under subsection (4), to some other person.
        (3) Where, by court procedure rules made for the purposes of this section, another officer of the Court is, at any time, substituted for the officer previously prescribed as the officer to whom bonds of any class are to be given, the court procedure rules may provide that bonds of that class which were given before those court procedure rules come into operation shall have effect as if references in the bonds to the officer previously prescribed were references to the substituted officer.
        (4) Where it appears to the Court that the condition of a bond given in accordance with subsection (1) has been broken, the Court may, on application, order the bond to be assigned to such person as may be specified in the order.
        (5) A person to whom a bond is ordered to be assigned under subsection (4) shall be entitled by virtue of the order to sue on the bond in his own name as if it had been originally given to him, and to recover on it as trustee for all persons interested in the full amount recoverable in respect of the breach of condition.

      • 113. Production of documents filed in, or in the custody of, the Courts

        (1) Court procedure rules may be made for providing that, in any case where a document filed in, or in the custody of, any office of the Courts is required to be produced to any Court or tribunal (including an umpire or arbitrator) sitting elsewhere than in the Abu Dhabi Global Market —
        (a) it shall not be necessary for any officer, whether or not served with a subpoena in that behalf, to attend for the purpose of producing the document; but
        (b) the document may be produced to the Court or tribunal by sending it to the Court or tribunal, in the manner prescribed in the court procedure rules, together with a certificate, in the form so prescribed, to the effect that the document has been filed in, or is in the custody of, the office,
        and any such certificate shall be prima facie evidence of the facts stated in it.
        (2) Court procedure rules under this section may contain —
        (a) provisions for securing the safe custody and return to the proper office of the Courts of any document sent to a Court or tribunal in pursuance of the court procedure rules; and
        (b) such incidental and supplementary provisions as appear to the Chief Justice, or his nominated judicial office holder, to be necessary or expedient.

    • Chapter 2: Chapter 2: Enforcement

      • 114. Enforcement

        (1) Where a person takes steps to enforce a judgment or order of the Courts for payment of any sum due, the costs of any previous attempts to enforce that judgment shall be recoverable to the same extent as if they had been incurred in the taking of those steps.
        (2) Subsection (1) shall not apply in respect of any costs which the Court considers were unreasonably incurred (whether because the earlier attempt was unreasonable in all the circumstances of the case or for any other reason).

    • Chapter 3: Chapter 3: Charging Orders

      • 115. Charging orders

        (1) Where, under a judgment or order of the Courts, a person (the "debtor") is required to pay a sum of money to another person (the "creditor") then, for the purposes of enforcing that judgment or order, the Court of First Instance may make an order in accordance with the provisions of this Part 6 imposing on any such property of the debtor as may be specified in the order a charge for securing the payment of any money due or to become due under the judgment or order.
        (2) An order under subsection (1) is referred to in these Regulations as a "charging order".
        (3) A person may apply to the Court of First Instance for a charging order to enforce more than one judgment or order.
        (4) In deciding whether to make a charging order, the Court shall consider all the circumstances of the case and, in particular, any evidence before it as to —
        (a) the circumstances (including, where relevant and appropriate, the personal circumstances) of the debtor; and
        (b) whether any other creditor of the debtor would be likely to be unduly prejudiced by the making of the order.
        (5) Subsections (6) and (7) apply where, under a judgment or order of the Courts, a debtor is required to pay a sum of money by instalments.
        (6) The fact that there has been no default in payment of the instalments does not prevent a charging order from being made in respect of that sum.
        (7) But if there has been no default, the Court must take that into account when considering the circumstances of the case under subsection (4).

      • 116. Property which may be charged

        (1) Subject to subsection (3) below, a charge may be imposed by a charging order only on —
        (a) any interest held by the debtor beneficially —
        (i) in any asset of a kind mentioned in subsection (2); or
        (ii) under any trust; or
        (b) any interest held by a person as a trustee of a trust ("the trust"), if the interest is in such an asset or is an interest under another trust and —
        (i) the judgment or order in respect of which a charge is to be imposed was made against that person as trustee of the trust; or
        (ii) the whole beneficial interest under the trust is held by the debtor unencumbered and for his own benefit; or
        (iii) in a case where there are two or more debtors all of whom are liable to the creditor for the same debt, they together hold the beneficial interest under the trust unencumbered and for their own benefit.
        (2) The assets referred to in subsection (1) are —
        (a) real property;
        (b) securities of any of the following kinds —
        (i) government stock;
        (ii) stock of any body incorporated within the Abu Dhabi Global Market;
        (iii) stock of any body incorporated outside the Abu Dhabi Global Market or of any state or territory outside the Emirate or the United Arab Emirates, being stock registered in a register kept at any place within the Abu Dhabi Global Market;
        (iv) units of any unit trust in respect of which a register of the unit holders is kept in any place within the Abu Dhabi Global Market;
        (c) funds in Court; or
        (d) funds in any bank or investment account kept in the Abu Dhabi Global Market.
        (3) In any case where a charge is imposed by a charging order on any interest in an asset of a kind mentioned in subsections (2)(b), (c) or (d), the court making the order may provide for the charge to extend to any interest, dividend or other return payable in respect of the asset.

      • 117. Provisions supplementing sections 115 and 116

        (1) A charging order may be made either absolutely or subject to conditions as to notifying the debtor or as to the time when the charge is to become enforceable, or as to other matters.
        (2) The Real Property Regulations 2015 shall apply in relation to charging orders as they apply in relation to other orders or writs issued or made for the purpose of enforcing judgments.
        (3) Subject to the provisions of this Part 6, a charge imposed by charging order shall have the like effect and shall be enforceable in the same Courts and in the same manner as an equitable charge created by the debtor by writing under his hand.
        (4) Subsections (6) to (8) apply where —
        (a) a debtor is required to pay a sum of money in instalments under a judgment or order of the Courts (an "instalments order"); and
        (b) a charge has been imposed by a charging order in respect of that sum.
        (5) In subsections (6) to (8), references to the enforcement of a charge are to the making of an order for the enforcement of the charge.
        (6) The charge may not be enforced unless there has been default in payment of an instalment under the instalments order.
        (7) Court procedure rules may —
        (a) provide that, if there has been default in payment of an instalment, the charge may be enforced only in prescribed cases; and
        (b) limit the amounts for which, and the times at which, the charge may be enforced.
        (8) Except so far as otherwise provided by court procedure rules under subsection (7) —
        (a) the charge may be enforced, if there has been a default in payment of an instalment, for the whole of the sum of money secured by the charge and the costs then remaining unpaid, or for such part as the Court may order; but
        (b) the charge may not be enforced unless, at the time of enforcement, the whole or part of an instalment which has become due under the instalments order remains unpaid.
        (9) The Court of First Instance may at any time, on the application of the debtor or of any person interested in any property to which the order relates, make an order discharging or varying the charging order.
        (10) Where a charging order has been protected by an entry registered under the Real Property Regulations 2015, an order under subsection (9) discharging the charging order may direct that the entry be cancelled.
        (11) The Board, on the recommendation of the Chief Justice, may by rules amend section 116(2) by adding to, or removing from, the kinds of asset for the time being referred to there, any asset of a kind which, in the Chief Justice's opinion ought to be so added or removed.

      • 118. Power to set financial thresholds

        (1) The Board, on the recommendation of the Chief Justice, may by rules provide that a charge may not be imposed by a charging order for securing the payment of money of an amount below that determined in accordance with such rules.
        (2) The Board, on the recommendation of the Chief Justice, may by rules provide that a charge imposed by a charging order may not be enforced by way of order for sale to recover money of an amount below that determined in accordance with such rules.
        (3) Rules made under this section may —
        (a) make different provision for different cases;
        (b) include such transitional provision as the chairman of the Board, after consulting the Chief Justice, thinks fit.

    • Chapter 4: Chapter 4: Stop Orders and Notices

      • 119. Stop orders and notices

        (1) In this section —
        (a) "stop order" means an order of the Court prohibiting the taking, in respect of any of the securities specified in the order, of any of the steps mentioned in subsection (5);
        (b) "stop notice" means a notice requiring any person or body on whom it is duly served to refrain from taking, in respect of any of the securities specified in the notice, any of those steps without first notifying the person by whom, or on whose behalf, the notice was served; and
        (c) "prescribed securities" means securities (including funds in court and funds in any bank or investment account) of a kind prescribed by court procedure rules made under this section.
        (2) The power to make court procedure rules under section 186 shall include the power by any such court procedure rules to make provision —
        (a) for the Court of First Instance to make a stop order on the application of any person claiming to be entitled to an interest in prescribed securities; and
        (b) for the service of a stop notice by any person claiming to be entitled to an interest in prescribed securities.
        (3) Court procedure rules made by virtue of subsection (2) shall prescribe the person or body on whom a copy of any stop order or stop notice is to be served.
        (4) Any court procedure rules made by virtue of this section may include such incidental, supplementary and consequential provisions as the authority making them consider necessary or expedient, and may make different provision in relation to different cases or classes of case.
        (5) The steps mentioned in subsection (1) are —
        (a) the registration of any transfer of the securities;
        (b) in the case of funds in Court and funds in any bank or investment account, the transfer, sale, delivery out, payment or dealing with the funds, or of the income thereon; and
        (c) the making of any payment by way of dividend, interest or otherwise in respect of the securities.

    • Chapter 5: Chapter 5: Appeals

      • 120. Permission to appeal

        (1) Court procedure rules may provide that any right of appeal to —
        (a) the Court of First Instance; or
        (b) the Court of Appeal,
        may be exercised only with permission.
        (2) For the purposes of subsection (1), court procedure rules may make provision as to —
        (a) the classes of case in which a right of appeal may be exercised only with permission;
        (b) the Court or Courts which may give permission for the purposes of this section;
        (c) any considerations to be taken into account in deciding whether permission should be given;
        (d) any requirements to be satisfied before permission may be given; and
        (e) the time within which an appeal, or an application for permission to appeal, must be brought,
        and may make different provision for different circumstances.
        (3) Without affecting any right under court procedure rules to make a further application for permission to appeal to the same or another Court, no appeal shall be made against a decision of a Court to give or refuse permission.
        (4) For the purposes of this section, a right to make an application to have a case stated for the opinion of the Court of First Instance constitutes a right of appeal.
        (5) For the purposes of this section, a right of appeal to the Court of Appeal includes the right to make an application for a new trial.

      • 121. Second appeals

        Where an appeal is made to the Court of First Instance in relation to any matter, and on hearing the appeal the Court makes a decision in relation to that matter, no appeal may be made to the Court of Appeal from that decision.

        Amended on June 24, 2020

      • 122. Power to prescribe alternative destination of appeals

        (1) The Chief Justice may by order provide that appeals which would otherwise lie to —
        (a) the Court of First Instance; or
        (b) the Court of Appeal,
        shall instead lie elsewhere as specified in the order.
        (2) An order under subsection (1) —
        (a) may make different provision for different classes of proceedings or appeals; and
        (b) may contain consequential amendments or repeals of enactments.
        (3) Before making an order under subsection (1), the Chief Justice —
        (a) shall consult the Board; and
        (b) shall place before the Board a draft of the order.
        (4) For the purposes of this section, an application to have a case stated for the opinion of the Court of First Instance constitutes an appeal.
        (5) The Chief Justice may nominate a judicial office holder to exercise his functions under this section.

    • Chapter 6: Chapter 6: Enforcement by Taking Control of Goods

      • 123. Enforcement agents

        (1) This section and section 124 apply for the purposes of Schedule 1.
        (2) An individual may act as an enforcement agent only if one of these applies —
        (a) he acts under a certificate under section 124;
        (b) he is exempt; or
        (c) he acts in the presence and under the direction of a person to who paragraph (a) or (b) applies.
        (3) An individual is exempt if he acts in the course of his duty as a person appointed under section 210(1) (Court officers and staff).
        (4) An individual is exempt if he acts in the course of his duty as an officer of the Abu Dhabi Global Market, a Global Market's Authority or an Emirate's government department.

      • 124. Certificate to act as an enforcement agent

        (1) A certificate may be issued under this section by the Registrar.
        (2) The Board, acting on the recommendation of and having consulted with, the Chief Justice, must make rules about certificates under this section.
        (3) The rules may in particular include provision —
        (a) for fees to be charged for applications;
        (b) for certificates to be issued subject to conditions, including the giving of security;
        (c) for certificates to be limited to purposes specified by or under the rules;
        (d) about complaints against holders of certificates;
        (e) about suspension and cancellation of certificates;
        (f) to modify or supplement Schedule 1 for cases where a certificate is suspended or cancelled or expires;
        (g) requiring the Courts to make information available relating to certificates.

      • 125. Power of the Court of First Instance to stay execution

        (1) If the Court of First Instance is satisfied that a party to the proceedings is unable to pay —
        (a) a sum recovered against him (by way of satisfaction of the claim or counterclaim in the proceedings or by way of costs or otherwise); or
        (b) any instalment of such a sum,
        the Court may stay the execution of any writ of control issued in the proceedings, for whatever period and on whatever terms it thinks fit.
        (2) The Court may act under subsection (1) from time to time until it appears that the cause of the inability to pay has ceased.
        (3) In this section, a party to proceedings includes every person, whether or not named as a party, who is served with notice of the proceedings or attends them.

    • Chapter 7: Chapter 7: Rent Arrears Recovery

      • 126. Abolition of common law right

        The common law right to distrain for arrears of rent or to levy distress to satisfy any debt is abolished.

      • 127. Commercial rent arrears recovery (CRAR)

        (1) A landlord under a lease of commercial premises may use the procedure in Schedule 1 to recover from the tenant rent payable under the lease.
        (2) A landlord's power under subsection (1) is referred to as CRAR (commercial rent arrears recovery).

      • 128. Landlord

        (1) In this Chapter, "landlord", in relation to a lease, means the person for the time being entitled to the immediate reversion in the property comprised in the lease.
        (2) That is subject to the following.
        (3) In the case of a tenancy by estoppel, a person is "entitled to the immediate reversion" if he is entitled to it as between himself and the tenant.
        (4) If there are joint tenants of the immediate reversion, or if a number of persons are entitled to the immediate reversion as between themselves and the tenant —
        (a) "landlord" means any one of them;
        (b) CRAR may be exercised to recover rent due to all of them.
        (5) If the immediate reversion is mortgaged, "landlord" means —
        (a) the mortgagee, if he has given notice of his intention to take possession or enter into receipt of rents and profits;
        (b) otherwise, the mortgagor.
        (6) Subsection (5) applies whether the lease is registered under the Real Property Regulations 2015 before or after the mortgage is so registered, but CRAR is not exercisable by a mortgagee in relation to a lease that would not bind a subsequent mortgagee to a foreclosure of the mortgage.
        (7) Where a receiver is appointed by a Court in relation to the immediate reversion, CRAR is exercisable by the receiver in the name of the landlord.
        (8) Any authorisation of a person to exercise CRAR on another's behalf must be in writing and must comply with any prescribed requirements.
        (9) This Chapter applies to any other person entitled to exercise CRAR in the same manner as it applies to a landlord.

      • 129. Lease

        (1) "Lease" means a lease creating a leasehold interest in real property as described in section 1(e) of the Real Property Regulations 2015.
        (2) A lease must be evidenced in writing.
        (3) References to a lease are to a lease as varied from time to time (whether or not the variation is in writing).
        (4) This section applies for the purposes of this Chapter.

      • 130. Commercial premises

        (1) A lease ("A") is of commercial premises if none of the demised premises is —
        (a) let as a dwelling under lease A;
        (b) let as a dwelling under a sub-lease (or sub-sub-lease, or any inferior leasehold interest) with respect to lease A ("B"); or
        (c) occupied as a dwelling.
        (2) The "demised premises" in this section include any real property on the demised premises.
        (3) "Let as a dwelling" means let on terms permitting only occupation as a dwelling or other use combined with occupation as a dwelling.
        (4) Premises are not within subsection (1)(b) if letting them as a dwelling is in breach of a lease superior to lease B.
        (5) Premises are not within subsection (1)(c) if occupying them as a dwelling is a breach of lease A or a lease superior to lease A.
        (6) This section applies for the purposes of this Chapter.

      • 131. Rent

        (1) "Rent" means the amount payable under a lease (in advance or in arrears) for possession and use of the demised premises denominated as "rent" pursuant to the lease —
        (a) including, to the extent denominated "rent" pursuant to the lease, any sums in respect of services, repairs, maintenance, insurance, mortgage interest or other ancillary matters; and
        (b) together with any interest payable on that amount under the lease.
        (2) The amount payable for possession and use of the demised premises, where it is not otherwise identifiable, is to be taken to be so much of the total amount payable under the lease as is reasonably attributable to possession and use.
        (3) This section applies for the purposes of this Chapter except sections 126 to 138.

      • 132. The rent recoverable

        (1) CRAR is not exercisable except to recover rent that meets each of these conditions —
        (a) it has become due and payable before notice of enforcement is given;
        (b) it is certain, or capable of being calculated with certainty.
        (2) The amount of any rent recoverable by CRAR is reduced by any permitted deduction.
        (3) CRAR is exercisable only if the net unpaid rent is at least the minimum amount immediately before each of these —
        (a) the time when notice of enforcement is given;
        (b) the first time that goods are taken control of after that notice.
        (4) The minimum amount is to be calculated in accordance with rules made by the Board.
        (5) The net unpaid rent is the amount of rent that meets the conditions of subsection (1), less —
        (a) any interest included in that amount under section 131(1); and
        (b) any permitted deductions.
        (6) Rules made by the Board may provide for subsection (5)(a) not to apply in specified cases.
        (7) Permitted deductions, against any rent, are any deduction, recoupment or set-off that the tenant would be entitled to claim (in law or equity) in an action by the landlord for that rent.

      • 133. Intervention of the Court of First Instance

        (1) If notice of enforcement is given in exercise (or purported exercise) of CRAR the Court of First Instance may make either or both of the following orders on the application of the tenant —
        (a) an order setting aside the notice;
        (b) an order that no further step may be taken under CRAR, without further order, in relation to the rent claimed.
        (2) Rules made by the Board may make provision about —
        (a) the further orders that may be made for the purposes of subsection (1)(b);
        (b) the grounds of which the Court of First Instance must be satisfied before making an order or further order.

      • 134. Use of CRAR after the termination or expiration of the lease

        (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), CRAR ceases to be exercisable after the expiration or termination of the lease (the "expiration or termination date").
        (2) CRAR continues to be exercisable in relation to goods taken control of under it —
        (a) before the expiration or termination date of the lease; or
        (b) under subsection (3).
        (3) CRAR continues to be exercisable in relation to rent due and payable before the expiration or termination date of the lease, if the conditions in subsection (4) are met.
        (4) These conditions are —
        (a) the lease did not end by forfeiture as determined by the Court in accordance with section 49 of the Real Property Regulations;
        (b) not more than 6 months have passed since the expiration or termination date of the lease;
        (c) the rent was due from the person who was the tenant on the expiration or termination date of the lease;
        (d) that person, or any sub-tenant, remains in possession of any part of the demised premises;
        (e) any new lease under which that person remains in possession is a lease of commercial premises;
        (f) that person who was the landlord as at the expiration or termination date of the lease remains entitled to the immediate reversion.
        (5) In deciding whether a person remains in possession under a new lease, section 129(2) (lease to be evidenced in writing) does not apply.
        (6) In the case of a tenancy by estoppel, the person who was the landlord remains "entitled to the immediate reversion" if the estoppel with regard to the tenancy continues.
        (7) On the expiration or termination date of a lease, the tenant under that lease will cease to have any further right to use or occupancy of the leased premises, except where the lease expressly provides otherwise.

      • 135. Right to rent from a sub-tenant

        (1) This section applies where CRAR is exercisable by a landlord to recover rent due and payable from a tenant (the "immediate tenant").
        (2) The landlord may serve notice on any sub-tenant.
        (3) The notice must state the amount of rent that the landlord has the right to recover from the immediate tenant by CRAR (the "notified amount").
        (4) When it takes effect, the notice transfers to the landlord the right to recover, receive and give a discharge for any rent payable by the sub-tenant under the sub-lease, until —
        (a) the notified amount has been paid (by payments under the notice or otherwise); or
        (b) the notice is replaced or withdrawn.
        (5) A notice under this section takes effect at the end of a period to be determined by rules made by the Board.
        (6) Rules made by the Board may state —
        (a) the form of a notice under this section;
        (b) what it must contain;
        (c) how it must be served;
        (d) what must be done to withdraw it.
        (7) In determining, for the purposes of this section, whether CRAR is exercisable, section 132 applies with these modifications —
        (a) if notice of enforcement has not been given, references to that notice are to be read as references to the notice under this section;
        (b) if goods have not been taken control of, section 132(3)(b) does not apply.
        (8) In this section and sections 136 to 138
        (a) "sub-tenant" means a tenant —
        (i) under a sub-lease described as a "lease B"; and
        (ii) under a "lease A" where lease A is itself a sub-lease (below the immediate tenant) of any premises comprised in the headlease (and "sub-lease" is to be read accordingly);
        (b) "headlease" means the lease between the landlord and the immediate tenant.

      • 136. Off-setting payments under a notice

        (1) For any amount that a sub-tenant pays under a notice under section 135, he may deduct an equal amount from the rent that would be due to his immediate landlord under the sub-lease.
        (2) If an amount is deducted under subsection (1) or this subsection from rent due under a superior sub-tenant, that sub-tenant may deduct an equal amount from any rent due from him under his sub-lease.
        (3) Subsection (1) applies even if the sub-tenant's payment or part of it is not due under the notice, if it is not due because —
        (a) the notified amount has already been paid (wholly or partly otherwise than under the notice); or
        (b) the notice has been replaced by a notice served on another sub-tenant.
        (4) That is subject to the following.
        (5) Subsection (1) does not apply if the landlord withdraws the notice before the payment is made.
        (6) Where the notified amount has already been paid (or will be exceeded by the payment), subsection (1) does not apply (or does not apply to the excess) if the sub-tenant has notice of that when making the payment.
        (7) Subsection (1) does not apply if, before the payment is made, payments under the notice at least equal the notified amount.
        (8) Subsection (1) does not apply to a part of the payment if, with the rest of the payment, payments under the notice at least equal the notified amount.
        (9) Where the notice has been replaced by one served on another sub-tenant, subsection (1) does not apply if the sub-tenant has notice of that when making the payment.

      • 137. Withdrawal and replacement of notices

        (1) A notice under section 135 is replaced if the landlord serves another notice on the same sub-tenant for a notified amount covering the same rent or part of that rent.
        (2) A notice under section 135 served on one sub-tenant is also replaced if —
        (a) the landlord serves a notice on another sub-tenant for a notified amount covering the same rent or part of that rent; and
        (b) in relation any of the premises comprised in the first sub-tenant's sublease, the second sub-tenant is an inferior or superior sub-tenant.
        (3) The landlord must withdraw a notice under section 135 if any of these happens —
        (a) the notice is replaced;
        (b) the notified amount is paid, unless it is paid wholly by the sub-tenant.

      • 138. Recovery of sums due and overpayments

        (1) Subject to subsection (2), for the purposes of the recovery of sums payable by a sub-tenant under a notice under section 135 (including recovery by CRAR), the sub-tenant is to be treated as the immediate tenant of the landlord, and the sums are to be treated as rent accordingly.
        (2) Those sums (as opposed to rent due from the immediate tenant) are not recoverable by notice under section 135 served on an inferior sub-tenant.
        (3) Any payment received by the landlord that the sub-tenant purports to make under a notice under section 135, and that is not due under the notice for any reason, is to be treated as a payment of rent by the immediate tenant, for the purposes of the retention of the payment by the landlord and (if no rent is due) for the purposes of any claim by the immediate tenant to recover the payment.
        (4) Subsection (3) does not affect any claim by the sub-tenant against the immediate tenant.

      • 139. Contracts for similar rights to be void

        (1) A provision of a contract is void to the extent that it would do any of these —
        (a) confer a right to seize or otherwise take control of goods to recover amounts within subsection (2);
        (b) confer a right to sell goods to recover amounts within subsection (2);
        (c) modify the effect of section 127(1), except in accordance with subsection (1).
        (2) The amounts are any amounts payable —
        (a) as rent;
        (b) under a lease (other than rent);
        (c) under an agreement collateral to a lease;
        (d) in respect of a breach of a covenant or condition in a lease, in an agreement collateral to a lease;
        (e) under an indemnity in respect of a payment within paragraphs (a) to (d).
        (3) A provision of a contract is not void under subsection (1)(c) to the extent that it prevents or restricts the exercise of CRAR.
        (4) In this section "lease" does not include a licence to occupy real property.

      • 140. Rules

        (1) In this section and in sections 123 to 139 "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made by the Board.
        (2) The following apply to rules made by the Board under this section and sections 123 to 139.
        (3) Rules may include any of these that the Board, having consulted the Chief Justice, considers necessary or expedient —
        (a) supplementary, incidental or consequential provisions;
        (b) transitory, transitional or saving provisions.
        (4) Rules may make different provisions for different cases.

    • Chapter 8: Chapter 8: Attachment of Earnings

      • 141. Court of First Instance to have power to attach earnings

        (1) The Court of First Instance may make an attachment of earnings order to secure the payment of a judgment debt, other than a debt of less than US$100 or such other sum as may be prescribed by court procedure rules.
        (2) Any power conferred by these Regulations to make an attachment of earnings order includes a power to make such an order to secure the discharge of liabilities arising before the coming into force of these Regulations.

      • 142. Orders to which these Regulations apply

        Sections 143 to 159 apply, except where otherwise stated, to attachments of earnings orders made or to be made, by the Court of First Instance under these Regulations.

      • 143. Principal definitions

        In sections 141 to 159

        (a) "judgment debt" means a sum payable under —
        (i) a judgment or order enforceable by a Court in the Abu Dhabi Global Market; or
        (ii) an order of any Court which is enforceable as if it were for the payment of money so recoverable;
        (b) "the relevant adjudication", in relation to any payment secured or to be secured by an attachment of earnings order, means the judgment, order or other adjudication from which there arises the liability to make payment; and
        (c) "the debtor", in relation to an attachment of earnings order, or to proceedings in which the Court has power to make an attachment of earnings order, or to proceedings arising out of such an order, means the person by whom payment is required by the relevant adjudication to be made.

      • 144. Application for an order and conditions of the Court of First Instance's power to make such order

        (1) The person to whom payment under the relevant adjudication is required to be made (whether directly or through the Court or an officer of the Court) may apply for an attachment of earnings order.
        (2) For an attachment of earnings order to be made on the application of any person other than the debtor it must appear to the Court that the debtor has failed to make one or more payments required by the relevant adjudication.

      • 145. Effect and contents of attachment of earnings order

        (1) An attachment of earnings order shall be an order directed to a person who appears to the Court of First Instance to have the debtor in his employment and shall operate as an instruction to that person —
        (a) to make periodical deductions from the debtor's earnings, as specified in the order; and
        (b) at such times as the order may require, or as the Court may allow, to pay the amounts deducted to the collecting officer of the Court, as specified in the order.
        (2) If the Court of First Instance makes an attachment of earnings order to secure payment of a judgment debt, the order must specify that periodical deductions are to be made in accordance with the fixed deductions scheme.
        (3) If the Court of First Instance makes any other attachment of earnings order, the order must specify that periodical deductions are to be made in accordance with Part 1 of Schedule 2.
        (4) For the purposes of these Regulations, the relationship of employer and employee shall be treated as subsisting between two persons if one of them, as principal and not as a servant or agent, pays to the other any sums defined as earnings by section 158.
        (5) An attachment of earnings order shall contain prescribed particulars enabling the debtor to be identified by the employer.
        (6) The order shall specify the whole amount payable under the relevant adjudication (or so much of that amount as remains unpaid), including any relevant costs.
        (7) A Schedule 2 deductions order shall specify —
        (a) the normal deduction rate, that is to say, the rate (expressed as a sum of money per week, month or other period) at which the Court thinks it reasonable for the debtor's earnings to be applied to meeting his liability under the relevant adjudication; and
        (b) the protected earnings rate, that is to say the rate (so expressed) below which, having regard to the debtor's resources and needs, the Court thinks it reasonable that the earnings actually paid to him should not be reduced.
        (8) For the purposes of an attachment of earning order, the collecting officer of the Court shall be (subject to later variation of the order under section 149) the proper officer of the Court of First Instance.
        (9) In subsection (8) "proper officer" means an officer designated by the Chief Justice.
        (10) The Chief Justice may by order make such provision as he considers expedient (including transitional provision) with a view to providing for the payment of amounts deducted under attachment of earnings orders to be made to such officers as may be designated by the order rather than to collecting officers of the Court.
        (11) Any such order may make such amendments to these Regulations in relation to the functions exercised by or in relation to collecting officers of the Court as the Chief Justice considers expedient in consequence of the provision made by virtue of subsection (10).

      • 146. The fixed deductions scheme

        (1) In sections 141 to 159 and Schedule 3 "fixed deductions scheme" means any scheme that the Board (in consultation with and on the recommendation of the Chief Justice) makes which specifies the rates and frequencies at which deductions are to be made under the attachment of earnings orders so as to secure the repayment of judgment debts.
        (2) The Board may establish the fixed deductions scheme by rules.
        (3) The Board may not make rules under subsection (2) without first consulting the Chief Justice.

      • 147. Compliance with an attachment of earnings order by an employer

        (1) Where an attachment of earnings order has been made, the employer shall, if he has been served with the order, comply with it; but he shall be under no liability for non-compliance before seven days have elapsed since the service.
        (2) Where a person is served with an attachment of earnings order directed to him and the debtor is not, or subsequently ceases to be, in his employment, he shall (in either case) within ten days from the date of service or, as the case may be, the cesser, give notice of that fact to the Court of First Instance.
        (3) Part 2 of Schedule 2 shall have effect with respect to the priority to be accorded as between two or more attachment of earnings order directed to a person in respect of the same debtor.
        (4) On any occasion when the employer makes, in compliance with the order, a deduction from the debtor's earnings —
        (a) he shall be entitled to deduct, in addition, an amount not exceeding 5% of the monthly deduction towards his clerical and administrative costs; and
        (b) he shall give to the debtor a statement in writing of the total amount of the deduction.

      • 148. Interrelation with alternative remedies open to creditors

        Where the Court of First Instance has made an attachment of earnings order to secure the payment of a judgment debt, so long as the order is in force, no execution for the recovery of the debt shall be issued against any of the debtor's property without the leave of the Court of First Instance.

      • 149. Variation, lapse and discharge of attachment of earnings orders

        (1) The Court of First Instance may make an order discharging or varying an attachment of earnings order.
        (2) Subsection (1) is subject to Schedule 3 (which deals with the variation of certain attachment of earnings orders by changing the basis of deductions).
        (3) Where an order is varied, the employer shall, if he has been served with notice of the variation, comply with the order as varied; but he shall be under no liability for non-compliance before seven days have elapsed since the service.
        (4) Court procedure rules may provide as to the circumstances in which an attachment of earnings order made under these Regulations may be varied or discharged by the Court of its own motion.
        (5) Where an attachment of earnings order has been made and the person to whom it is directed ceases to have the debtor in his employment, the order shall lapse (except as regards deduction from earnings paid after the cesser and payment to the collecting officer of amounts deducted at any time) and be of no effect unless and until the Court of First Instance again directs it to a person (whether the same as before or another) who appears to the Court to have the debtor in his employment.
        (6) The lapse of an order under subsection (5) shall not prevent its being treated as remaining in force for other purposes.

      • 150. Suspension of fixed deductions orders

        (1) The Court of First Instance must make an order suspending a fixed deductions order if the Court is satisfied of either or both of the following —
        (a) that the fixed deductions order requires periodical deductions to be made at a rate which is not appropriate;
        (b) that the fixed deductions order requires periodical deductions to be made at times which are not appropriate.
        (2) The Court of First Instance is to make the suspension order on the following terms —
        (a) if the condition in subsection (1)(a) is met: on terms specifying the rate at which the debtor must make repayments (whether higher or lower than the rate at which the order requires the deductions to be made);
        (b) if the condition in subsection (1)(b) is met: on terms specifying the times at which the debtor must make repayments;
        (c) if either or both conditions are met: on any additional terms that the Court thinks appropriate having regard to all of the circumstances.
        (3) If the employer is given notice of the suspension order, he must cease to make the deductions required by the fixed deductions order; but the employer is under no liability for non-compliance before seven days have elapsed since service of the notice.
        (4) The Court of First Instance —
        (a) must revoke the suspension order if any of the terms of the suspension order are breached;
        (b) may revoke the suspension order in any other circumstances if it thinks that it is appropriate to do.
        (5) Court procedure rules may make provision as to the circumstances in which the Court of First Instance may of its own motion —
        (a) make a suspension order; or
        (b) revoke a suspension order.
        (6) The suspension of a fixed deductions order under this section does not prevent the order from being treated as remaining in force subject to the provisions of this section.
        (7) This section does not affect any other powers of the Court to suspend attachment of earnings orders or to revoke the suspension of such orders.
        (8) In this section, in relation to a fixed deductions order, "repayments" means repayments of the judgment debt to which the order relates.

      • 151. Termination of employer's liability to made deductions

        (1) Where an attachment of earnings order ceases to have effect under section 148, the proper officer shall give notice of the cesser to the person to whom the order was directed.
        (2) Where the whole amount payable under the relevant adjudication has been paid, and also any relevant costs, the Court shall give notice to the employer that no further compliance with the order is required.
        (3) Where an attachment of earnings order —
        (a) ceases to have effect under section 148; or
        (b) is discharged under section 149,
        the person to whom the order has been directed shall be under no liability in consequence of his treating the order as still in force at any time before the expiration of seven days from the date on which the notice required by subsection (1) or, as the case may be, a copy of the discharging order is served on him.

      • 152. Application of sums received by collection officer

        (1) Subject to subsection (2), the collecting officer to whom a person makes payment in compliance with an attachment of earnings order shall, after deducting such court fees, if any, in respect of proceedings for or arising out of the order, as are deductible from those payments, deal with the sums paid in the same way as he would if they had been paid by the debtor to satisfy the relevant adjudication.
        (2) Where the Court of First Instance makes an attachment of earnings order to secure the payment of a judgment debt, sums paid to the collecting officer in compliance with the attachment of earnings order shall not be dealt with by him in accordance with subsection (1), but shall be retained by him pending the decision of the Court whether or not to make an administration order and shall then be dealt with by him as the Court may direct.

      • 153. Power of the Court of First Instance to obtain a statement of earnings etc.

        (1) Where in any proceedings the Court of First Instance has the power under these Regulations to make a Schedule 2 deductions order, the Court may —
        (a) order the debtor to give to the Court within a specified period, a statement signed by him of —
        (i) the name and address of any person by whom earnings are paid to him;
        (ii) specified particulars as to his earnings and anticipated earnings, and as to his resources and needs;
        (iii) specified particulars for the purpose of enabling the debtor to be identified by an employer of his; and
        (b) order any person appearing to the Court to have the debtor in his employment to give to the Court within a specified period, a statement signed by him or on his behalf or specified particulars of the debtor's earnings and anticipated earnings.
        (2) Where in any proceedings the Court of First Instance has power to make a fixed deductions order, the Court may order the debtor to give to the Court, within a specified period, a statement signed by him of —
        (a) the name and address of any person by whom earnings are paid to him; and
        (b) specified particulars for enabling the debtor to be identified by any employer of his.
        (3) At any time when a Schedule 2 deductions order is in force, the Court may —
        (a) make such an order as is described in subsection (1)(a) or (b); and
        (b) order the debtor to attend before the Court on a day and at a time specified in the order to give the information described in subsection (1)(a).
        (4) At any time when a fixed deductions order is in force, the Court may —
        (a) make such an order as is described in subsection (2); and
        (b) order the debtor to attend before it on a day and at a time specified in the order to give the information described in subsection (2).
        (5) Without affecting subsections (1) to (4), Court Procedure Rules may provide that where notice of an application for an attachment of earnings order is served on the debtor, it shall include a requirement that he shall, within such period and in such manner as may be prescribed, give the Court a statement in accordance with subsection (6) or (7).
        (6) In a case where the attachment of earnings order would, if made, be a Schedule 2 deductions order, the debtor must give a statement in writing of —
        (a) the matters specified in subsection (1)(a); and
        (b) any other prescribed matters which are, or may be, relevant under section 145 to the determination of the normal deduction rate and the protected earnings rate to be specified in any attachment of earnings order made on the application.
        (7) In a case where the attachment of earnings order would, if made, be a fixed deductions order, the debtor must give a statement in writing of the matters specified in subsection (2).
        (8) In any proceedings in which the Court of First Instance has the power under these Regulations to make an attachment of earnings order, and in any proceedings for the making, variation or discharge of such an order, a document purporting to be a statement given to the Court in compliance with an order under subsection (1)(a) or (b) or (2), or with any such requirement of a notice of application for an attachment of earnings order as mentioned in subsection (5), shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be deemed to be a statement so given and shall be evidence of the facts stated therein.

      • 154. Obligation of debtor and his employers to notify changes of employment and earnings

        While an attachment of earnings order is in force —

        (a) the debtor shall from time to time notify the Court in writing of every occasion on which he leaves any employment, or becomes employed or re-employed, not later (in each case) than seven days from the date on which he did so;
        (b) if the order is a Schedule 2 deductions order, the debtor shall, on any occasion when he becomes employed or re-employed include in his notification under paragraph (a) particulars of his earnings and anticipated earnings from the relevant employment;
        (c) any person who becomes the debtor's employer and knows that the order is in force shall, within seven days of his becoming the debtor's employer or of acquiring that knowledge (whichever is the later), notify the Court in writing that he is the debtor's employer, and if the order is a Schedule 2 deductions order, include in his notification a statement of the debtor's earnings and anticipated earnings.

      • 155. Penalties for non-compliance with section 153 orders

        (1) If, where the Court of First Instance makes an order pursuant to section 153, the debtor, or any person appearing to the Court to have the debtor in his employment pursuant to section 153(1)(b), fails to provide the statement required by that section or wilfully provides the Court with information which he knows or believes to be false or otherwise misleading, that person shall be liable to a fine not exceeding level 8 on the standard fines scale.
        (2) For the purposes of this section "information" means information in any form.

      • 156. Power of the Court of First Instance to determine whether particular payments are earnings

        (1) Where an attachments of earnings order is in force, the Court shall, on the application of a person specified in subsection (2) below, determine whether payments to the debtor of a particular class or description specified by the application are earnings for the purposes of the order; and the employer shall be entitled to give effect to any determination for the time being in force under this section.
        (2) The persons referred to in subsection (1) are —
        (a) the employer;
        (b) the debtor; and
        (c) the person to whom payment under the relevant adjudication is required to be made (whether directly or through an officer of the Court).
        (3) Where an application under this section is made by the employer, he shall not incur any liability for non-compliance with the order as respects any payments of the class or description specified by the application which are made by him to the debtor while the application, or any subsequent appeal, is pending; but this subsection shall not, unless the Court otherwise orders, apply as regards such payments if the employer subsequently withdraws the application or, as the case may be, abandons the appeal.
        (4) On making a determination under this section, the Court of First Instance may in its discretion make such order as it thinks just and reasonable for payment by any of the persons mentioned in subsection (2) of the whole or any part of the costs of the determination.
        (5) Costs ordered to be paid under subsection (4) shall be enforceable as a civil debt.

      • 157. Consolidated attachment orders

        (1) The powers of the Court of First Instance under sections 141 and 144 shall include the power to make an attachment of earnings order to secure the payment of any number of judgment debts.
        (2) An attachment of earnings order made by virtue of this section shall be known as a consolidated attachment order.
        (3) The power to make a consolidated attachment order shall be exercised subject to and in accordance with court procedure rules; and court procedure rules made for the purposes of this section may provide —
        (a) for cases in which any power exercisable under this section or the court procedure rules may be exercised by the Court of First Instance of its own motion or on the application of a prescribed person; and
        (b) for requiring the officer of the Court who receives payments made to him in compliance with an attachment of earnings order, instead of complying with section 152, to deal with them as directed by the Court or the court procedure rules.
        (4) Section 145(2) applies to a consolidated attachment order which the Court of First Instance makes to secure the payment of two or more judgment debts even if, immediately before the order is made, one or more of those debts is secured by a Schedule 2 deductions order.

      • 158. Meaning of "earnings"

        (1) For the purposes of these Regulations, but subject to the following subsection, "earnings" are any sums payable to a person —
        (a) by way of wages or salary (including any fees, bonus, commission, overtime pay or other emoluments payable in addition to wages or salary or payable under a contract for service);
        (b) by way of pension (including an annuity in respect of past services), whether or not rendered to the person paying the annuity, and including periodical payments by way of compensation for the loss, abolition or relinquishment, or diminution in the emoluments, of any office or employment.
        (2) The following shall not be treated as earnings —
        (a) sums payable by any public department of the Abu Dhabi Global Market;
        (b) any wage or salary sacrifices.

      • 159. General Interpretation

        (1) In sections 141 to 158 (and this section) and Schedules 2 and 3 of these Regulations, except where the context otherwise requires —
        (a) "the Court" in relation to an attachment of earnings order, means the Court of First Instance;
        (b) "the employer", in relation to an attachment of earnings order, means the person who is required by the order to make deductions from earnings paid by him to the debtor;
        (c) "fixed deductions order" means an attachment of earnings order under which periodical deductions are to be made in accordance with the fixed deductions scheme;
        (d) "prescribed" means prescribed by court procedure rules;
        (e) "Schedule 2 deductions order" means an attachment of earnings order under which periodical deductions are to be made in accordance with Part 1 of Schedule 2;
        (f) "suspension order" means an order under section 150 suspending a fixed deductions order.
        (2) Any reference in sections 141 to 158 (and this section) to sums payable under a judgment or order, or to the payment of such sums, includes a reference to costs and the payment of them; and the references in sections 145(6) and 151(2) to relevant costs are to any costs of the proceedings in which the attachment of earnings order in question was made, being costs which the debtor is liable to pay.
        (3) References in sections 145(7)(b) and 153(1)(a) to the debtor's needs include references to the needs of any person for whom he must, or reasonably may, provide.
        (4) Any power to make court procedure rules which is conferred by these Regulations does not affect any other power to make court procedure rules.

    • Chapter 9: Chapter 9: Information Orders and Information Rules

      • 160. Application for information about action to recover judgment debt

        (1) A person who is a creditor in relation to a judgment debt may apply to the Court of First Instance for information about what kind of action it would be appropriate to take in Court to recover that particular debt.
        (2) An application under subsection (1) must comply with any provision made in rules about the making of such application.

      • 161. Action by the Court of First Instance

        (1) This section applies if the creditor in relation to a judgment debt makes an application for information under section 160.
        (2) The Court of First Instance may make an information order in relation to the debtor.
        (3) The Court may exercise its powers under subsection (2) only if it is satisfied that to do so will help it to deal with the creditor's application.
        (4) Before exercising its powers under subsection (2), the Court must give notice to the debtor that the Court intends to make an order.
        (5) The Court may disclose such information (including information identifying the debtor) as it considers necessary to assist the recipients of an order to comply with such order.
        (6) A disclosure under subsection (5) is not to be taken to breach any restriction on the disclosure of information (however imposed).
        (7) Nothing in this section is to be taken to affect any power that exists apart from this section to order the disclosure of information.

      • 162. Information orders

        (1) An information order is an order of the Court of First Instance which —
        (a) specifies a prescribed person ("the information discloser");
        (b) specifies prescribed information relating to the debtor ("the required information"); and
        (c) orders the information discloser to disclose the required information to the Court.
        (2) In subsection (1), "prescribed" means prescribed by rules.
        (3) Rules made under this section may be made by reference to —
        (a) particular persons or particular descriptions of person (or both);
        (b) particular information or particular descriptions of information (or both).
        (4) Rules may, in particular, be made under this section so as to ensure that —
        (a) an information order made against a particular person, or a person of a particular description, may order that person to disclose only particular information, or information of a particular description;
        (b) an information order that orders the disclosure of particular information, or information of a particular description, may only be made against a particular person, or a person of a particular description.
        (5) Rules made under this section must not make provision that would allow the Court to order the disclosure of information by the debtor.

      • 163. Information order: required information not held etc.

        (1) An information discloser is not to be regarded as having breached an information order because of a failure to disclose some or all of the required information, if that failure is for one of the permitted reasons.
        (2) The permitted reasons are that —
        (a) the information provider does not hold the information;
        (b) the information provider is unable to ascertain whether the information is held because of the way in which the information order identifies the debtor;
        (c) the disclosure of the information would involve the information discloser in unreasonable or disproportionate effort or expense.
        (3) It is to be presumed that a failure to disclose required information is for a permitted reason if —
        (a) the information discloser gives the Court of First Instance a certificate that complies with subsection (4); and
        (b) there is no evidence that the failure is not for a permitted reason.
        (4) The certificate must state —
        (a) which of the required information is not being disclosed;
        (b) what the permitted reason is, or permitted reasons are, for the failure to disclose that information.
        (5) Any reference in this section to the information discloser holding, or not holding, information includes a reference to the information being held, or not being held, on the information discloser's behalf.

      • 164. Using information about the debtor

        (1) This section applies if —
        (a) the creditor in relation to a judgment debt makes an application for information under section 160; and
        (b) information ("debtor information") is disclosed to the Court of First Instance in compliance with an order made under section 161.
        (2) The Court may use the debtor information for the purposes of making another order under section 161 in relation to the debtor.
        (3) The Court may use the debtor information for the purpose of providing the creditor with information about what kind of action (if any) it would be appropriate to take in court (whether the Court of First Instance or another Court) to recover the judgment debt.
        (4) If the creditor takes any action in the Court of First Instance to recover the judgment debt, the Court may use the debtor information in carrying out functions in relation to that action.
        (5) If the creditor takes any action in another Court to recover the judgment debt —
        (a) the Court of First Instance may disclose the debtor information to the other Court; and
        (b) the other Court may use that information in carrying out functions in relation to that action.
        (6) Debtor information may be used or disclosed under any of subsections (3) to (5) only if —
        (a) rules about such use or disclosure of information are in force; and
        (b) the use or disclosure complies with those rules.
        (7) The use or disclosure of information in accordance with this section is not to be taken to breach any restriction on the use or disclosure of information (however imposed).
        (8) Nothing in this section is to be taken to affect any power that exists apart from this section to use or disclose information.
        (9) In this section "another Court" means any inferior court or tribunal and "other Court" shall be construed accordingly.

      • 165. Penalty for unauthorised use or disclosure

        (1) This section applies if —
        (a) an application is made under section 160 in relation to recovery of a judgment debt ("the relevant judgment debt");
        (b) an information order is made in consequence of that application; and
        (c) information ("debtor information") is disclosed in accordance with the order.
        (2) A person to whom the debtor information is disclosed commits a contravention of these Regulations if he —
        (a) uses or discloses the debtor information; and
        (b) the use or disclosure is not authorised by any of subsections (3) to (6).
        (3) The use or disclosure of debtor information is authorised if it is in accordance with section 164.
        (4) The use or disclosure of the debtor information is authorised if it is —
        (a) in accordance with an enactment or order of Court; or
        (b) for the purposes of any proceedings before a Court,
        and it is in accordance with rules.
        (5) The use or disclosure of debtor information is authorised if the information has previously been lawfully disclosed to the public.
        (6) The use or disclosure of debtor information is authorised if it is in accordance with court procedure rules that comply with rules made under subsection (7).
        (7) Rules may make provision about the circumstances, if any, in which court procedure rules may allow access to, or the supply of, information disclosed in accordance with an information order.
        (8) A person who makes an unauthorised use or disclosure of debtor information shall not incur any liability for any such breach under subsection (2) if he proves that he reasonably believed that the use or disclosure was authorised or was otherwise lawful.
        (9) A person who commits a contravention under subsection (2) is liable to a fine not exceeding level 4 on the standard fines scale.

      • 166. Information rules

        (1) It is for the Chief Justice to make information rules.
        (2) In this section "information rules" means rules made under any of sections 160 to 165.

    • Chapter 10: Chapter 10: Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments of other Jurisdictions and Arbitral Awards

      • 167. Interpretation

        (1) In this Chapter, except where the context otherwise requires —
        (a) "appeal includes any proceedings seeking the discharge or setting aside of a judgment, an application for a new trial or a stay of execution;
        (b) "applicable treaty" means a treaty between the United Arab Emirates and a foreign country relating to the mutual recognition and enforcement of judgments;
        (c) "country of the recognised court" means the Emirate, Emirate Member or country in which the recognised court is located;
        (d) "family proceedings" means Personal Status litigations or lawsuits in accordance with Federal Law No. (28) of 2005;
        (e) "judgment" means a judgment, decision or order given or made by a recognised court in any civil proceedings;
        (f) "original court" in relation to any judgment means the recognised court which gave the judgment;
        (g) "recognised court" means the judicial authorities of the Emirate and Emirate Members of the United Arab Emirates, courts of countries which have entered into applicable treaties, and a recognised foreign court;
        (h) "recognised foreign court" means a court recognised by the Courts in accordance with the procedure set out in section 171;
        (i) "registration" means registration under sections 172 to 176, the expressions "register" and "registered" shall be construed accordingly.
        (2) For the purposes of this Chapter, the expression "action in personam" shall not include any family proceedings or any other proceedings in connection with any of the following matters —
        (a) matrimonial matters;
        (b) administration of the estates of deceased persons;
        (c) bankruptcy;
        (d) winding up of companies;
        (e) mental incapacity; or
        (f) guardianship of children.
        Amended on April 19, 2017

      • 168. Reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments rendered by judicial authorities of the Emirate

        (1) The Courts shall recognise and enforce judgments rendered by the judicial authorities of the Emirate in accordance with this Chapter.
        (2) The Courts may enter into agreements or memoranda of understanding providing for —
        (a) the reciprocal recognition and enforcement by the Emirate's judicial authorities of judgments rendered by the Courts; and
        (b) the procedure to be adopted for the purposes of such recognition and enforcement.

      • 169. Reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments rendered by judicial authorities of Emirates Members other than the Emirate

        (1) The Courts may enter into agreements or memoranda of understanding providing for —
        (a) the reciprocal recognition and enforcement by the judicial authorities of Emirate Members other than the Emirate of judgments rendered by the Courts; and
        (b) the procedure to be adopted for the purposes of such recognition and enforcement.
        (2) Where agreements or memoranda of understanding are entered into between the Courts and any Emirate Member, other than the Emirate, in accordance with subsection (1), the Courts shall recognise and enforce judgments rendered by any judicial authority of that Emirate Member in accordance with this Chapter.

      • 170. Applicable treaties with foreign countries

        Where the United Arab Emirates has entered into an applicable treaty with a foreign country for the mutual recognition and enforcement of judgments, the Courts shall —

        (a) comply with the terms of such treaty; and
        (b) recognise and enforce judgments rendered by that foreign country in accordance with this Chapter.

      • 171. Recognition of the courts of a foreign country not party to an applicable treaty

        (1) If, in the case of any foreign country which is not a party to an applicable treaty, the Chief Justice is satisfied that substantial reciprocity of treatment will be assured as regards the recognition and enforcement in that foreign country of the judgments of the Courts, the Chief Justice, after consulting the Chairman of the Board, may by order direct that the courts of that foreign country be recognised foreign courts.
        (2) The Courts shall recognise and enforce judgments for the payment of a sum of money rendered by a recognised foreign court in accordance with this Chapter, not being a sum payable in respect of taxes or other charges of a like nature or in respect of a fine or other penalty.
        Amended on April 19, 2017

      • 172. Requirements for registration of recognised courts' judgments

        (1) Subject to subsection (2), a judgment of a recognised court shall be registered by the Courts if it satisfies the following conditions —
        (a) it is either final and conclusive as between the judgment debtor and the judgment creditor or requires the former to make an interim payment to the latter; and
        (b) in the case of a judgment of a recognised foreign court, it is given after the coming into force of the order which made that court a recognised foreign court.
        (2) A judgment of a recognised court satisfying the requirements under subsection (1) shall not be registered if it is —
        (a) given by that court on appeal from a court which is not a recognised court;
        (b) a judgment or other instrument which is regarded for the purposes of its enforcement as a judgment (or interim judgment) of that court but which was given or made in another country;
        (c) given by that court in proceedings founded on a judgment of a court in another country and having as their object the enforcement of that judgment.
        (3) A judgment shall be deemed to be final and conclusive notwithstanding that an appeal may be pending against it, or that it may still be subject to appeal, in the courts of the country of the original court.
        (4) The requirements and procedures for the registration and enforcement of a judgment of a recognised court shall be the same for each recognised court unless provided otherwise in an applicable treaty, or an agreement or memorandum of understanding entered into between the Courts and a recognised court, or in court procedure rules.
        Amended on April 19, 2017

      • 173. Application for, and effect of, registration of judgment of a recognised court

        (1) A judgment creditor in respect of a judgment which is registerable pursuant to section 172(1) may apply to the Court of First Instance at any time within six years after the date of the judgment, or where there have been proceedings by way of appeal against the judgment, after the date of the last judgment given in those proceeding, to register the judgment in the Courts.
        (2) Subject to subsection (3), on any application made under subsection (1), the Court of First Instance —
        (a) shall, subject to proof of the prescribed matters, register the judgment; and
        (b) in determining such an application, will not re-examine the merits of the judgment.
        (3) A judgment shall not be registered if at the date of the application —
        (a) it has been wholly satisfied; or
        (b) it could not be enforced by execution in the country of the original court.
        (4) Subject to the provisions of this Chapter with respect to the setting aside of registration and subject also to subsection (5) —
        (a) a registered judgment shall, for the purposes of enforcement, be of the same force and effect; and
        (b) proceedings may be taken on a registered judgment; and
        (c) any sum for which a judgment is registered shall carry interest; and
        (d) the Court of First Instance shall have the same control over the enforcement of a registered judgment,
        as if the judgment had been a judgment originally given in the Court of First Instance and entered on the date of registration.
        (5) Where any party has made an application to have the registration of a judgment set aside, the judgment shall not be enforced until after the application has been finally determined.
        (6) If at the date of the application for registration the judgment of the original court has been partly satisfied, the judgment shall only be registered in respect of the balance payable at that date.
        (7) If, on an application for registration of a judgment, it appears to the Court of First Instance that the judgment is in respect of different matters and that some, but not all, of the provisions of the judgment are such that if those provisions had been contained in separate judgments those judgments could properly have been registered, the judgment may be registered in respect of those provisions only.
        (8) In addition to any sum of money payable under the judgment of the original court, including any interest which by the law of the country of the original court becomes due under the judgment up to the time of registration, the judgment shall be registered for the reasonable costs of and incidental to registration, including the costs of obtaining a certified copy of the judgment from the original court.
        Amended on April 19, 2017

      • 174. Court procedure rules

        (1) Court procedure rules made under this Chapter may prescribe matters, including —
        (a) the procedure for applying for registration of a judgment;
        (b) prescribing the matters to be proved on an application for the registration of a judgment and for regulating the means of proving those matters;
        (c) the giving of security for costs by persons applying for the registration of judgments;
        (d) providing for the service on the judgment debtor of notice of the registration of a judgment;
        (e) the fixing, or extending, of the period within which an application may be made to have the registration of the judgment set aside;
        (f) prescribing the method by which any question arising under this Chapter as to whether a judgment can be enforced in the country of the original court, or what interest is payable under a judgment under the law of the original court, is to be determined;
        (g) prescribing any matter which under this Chapter is to be prescribed.
        (2) Court procedure rules made for the purposes of this Chapter shall be expressed to have, and shall have, effect subject to any provisions contained in orders made under this Chapter as are declared by such orders to be necessary for giving effect to agreements made between the Board and foreign countries in relation to matters with respect to which there is power to make court procedure rules for the purposes of this Chapter.

      • 175. Cases in which registered judgments must, or may, be set aside

        (1) On an application made by any party against whom a registered judgment may be enforced, the registration of the judgment —
        (a) shall be set aside if the Court of First Instance is satisfied that —
        (i) the judgment is not a judgment to which this Chapter applies or was registered in contravention of this Chapter; or
        (ii) the original court had no jurisdiction in the circumstances of the case; or
        (iii) where it was given in default, if the judgment debtor was not duly served with the documents which instituted the proceedings or with an equivalent document, in accordance with the law of the country of the original court, in sufficient time to enable him to arrange for his defence; or
        (iv) the judgment was obtained by fraud; or
        (v) the rights under the judgment are not vested in the person by whom the application for registration was made; or
        (vi) the enforcement of the judgment would be contrary to public policy in the Emirate or the Abu Dhabi Global Market;
        (b) may be set aside if the Court of First Instance is satisfied that the matter in dispute in the proceedings in the original court had previously, to the date of the judgment in the original court, been the subject of a final and conclusive judgment by a court having jurisdiction in the matter.
        (2) For the purposes of this section the courts of the country of the original court shall be deemed to have had jurisdiction —
        (a) in the case of a judgment given in an action in personam
        (i) if the judgment debtor, being a defendant in the original court, submitted to the jurisdiction of that court by voluntarily appearing in the proceedings; or
        (ii) if the judgment debtor was a claimant or counter-claimant in the proceedings in the original court; or
        (iii) if the judgment debtor, being a defendant in the original court, had before the commencement of the proceedings agreed, in respect of the subject matter of the proceedings, to submit to the jurisdiction of that court or of the courts of the country of that court; or
        (iv) if the judgment debtor, being a defendant in the original court, was at the time when the proceedings were instituted, resident in, or being a body corporate was registered under the laws of, the country of that court; or
        (v) if the judgment debtor, being a defendant in the original court, had an office or a place of business in the country of that court and the proceedings in that court were in respect of a transaction effected through or at that office or place;
        (b) in the case of a judgment given in an action the subject matter of which was immovable property, or in an action in rem the subject matter of which was moveable property, if the property in question was at the time of the proceedings in the original court situated in the country of that court;
        (c) in the case of judgment given in an action other than any such action as is mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b), if the jurisdiction of the original court is recognised by any Applicable Abu Dhabi Law or any ADGM enactment.

      • 176. Powers of Court of First Instance on application to set aside registration

        (1) If, on an application to set aside the registration of a judgment, the applicant satisfies the Court of First Instance either that an appeal is pending, or that he is entitled and intends to appeal, against the judgment, the Court, if it thinks fit, may, on such terms as it may think just, either set aside the registration or stay the application to set aside registration until after the expiration of such period as appears to the Court to be reasonably sufficient to enable the applicant to take the necessary steps to have the appeal disposed of by competent court or tribunal.
        (2) Where the registration of a judgment is set aside under subsection (1), or solely for the reason that the judgment was not, as at the date of the application for registration, enforceable by execution in the country of the original court, the setting aside of the registration shall not prejudice a further application to register the judgment when the appeal has been disposed of or if and when the judgment becomes enforceable in that country, as the case may be.
        (3) Where the registration of a judgment is set aside solely for the reason that the judgment, notwithstanding that it had, as at the date of the application for registration, been partly satisfied, was registered for the whole of any sum payable under the judgment, the Court of First Instance shall, on the application of the judgment creditor, order judgment to be registered for the balance remaining payable at that date.

      • 177. Judgments of recognised courts which can be registered not to be enforceable otherwise

        No proceedings for the recovery of any sum of money payable under, or for any other relief which is the subject of, a judgment of a recognised court, being a judgment to which this Chapter applies, shall be entertained by any Court other than proceedings by way of registration of the judgment.

        Amended on April 19, 2017

      • 178. General effect of certain judgments

        (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), a judgment to which this Chapter applies shall be recognised in any Court as conclusive between the parties thereto in all proceedings founded on the same cause of action and may be relied on by way of defence or counter-claim in any such proceedings.
        (2) This section shall not apply in the case of any judgment —
        (a) where the judgment has been registered and the registration has been set aside on some ground other than —
        (i) in the case of a recognised foreign court, that a sum of money was not payable under the judgment; or
        (ii) that the judgment had been wholly or partly satisfied; or
        (iii) that, at the date of the application, the judgment could not be enforced by execution in the country of the original court; or
        (b) where the judgment has not been registered, it is shown (whether it could have been registered or not) that if it had been registered, the registration would have been set aside on an application for that purpose on some ground other than one of the grounds set out in paragraph (a).
        (3) Nothing in this section shall be taken to prevent any Court recognising any judgment as conclusive of any matter of law or fact decided therein if that judgment would have been so recognised before the passing of these Regulations.
        Amended on April 19, 2017

      • 179. Provision for issue of copies of, and certificates in connection with, judgments of the Courts

        (1) Court procedure rules may make provision for enabling any judgment creditor wishing to secure the enforcement of a Court judgment in a foreign country to which this Chapter applies, to obtain, subject to any conditions specified in those court procedure rules —
        (a) a copy of the judgment; and
        (b) a certificate giving particulars relating to the judgment and the proceedings in which it was given.
        (2) Subsection (1) applies to any judgment given by a Court or tribunal in the Abu Dhabi Global Market under which a sum of money is payable or in respect of a fine or other penalty.

      • 180. Arbitral awards

        The provisions of this Chapter shall apply as they apply to a judgment, in relation to an award in proceedings on an arbitration which has, in pursuance of the law in force in the place where it was made, become enforceable in the same manner as a judgment given by a court in that place.

    • Chapter 11: Chapter 11: Set-Off and Cross-Claim

      • 181. Defendant's right to set-off

        Court procedure rules may make provision for and specify circumstances where a defendant in proceedings may set-off a prescribed amount claimed against him by the claimant.

      • 182. Defendant's right to cross-claim

        Court procedure rules may make provision for and specify circumstances where a defendant may make a counterclaim or an additional claim against —

        (a) the claimant; or
        (b) a person who is not already a party to the proceedings.

    • Chapter 12: Chapter 12: Miscellaneous

      • 183. Reimbursement of additional costs resulting from death or incapacity of presiding Judge etc.

        (1) Where —
        (a) the Judge, or (as the case may be) any of the Judges, presiding at any proceedings to which this section applies becomes temporarily or permanently incapacitated from presiding at the proceedings, or dies, at any time prior to the conclusion of the proceedings; and
        (b) any party represented at the proceedings incurs any additional costs in consequence of the Judge's incapacity or death,
        the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, reimburse that party in respect of any such additional costs, or in respect of such part thereof as it may determine; but the amount of any such reimbursement shall not exceed such sum as the Chief Justice may by order prescribe for the purposes of this section.
        (2) This section applies to proceedings in any Court and, in the case of interlocutory proceedings, applies separately to any such proceedings and to any other proceedings in the cause or matter in question.
        (3) For the purposes of this section the amount of any additional costs incurred by any person as mentioned in subsection (1)(b) shall be such amount as may be agreed between the Registrar and that person or, in default of agreement, as may be ascertained by taxation.
        (4) Where any proceedings to which this section applies —
        (a) are due to be begun before a Judge at a particular time; but
        (b) are not begun at that time by reason of the Judge becoming temporarily or permanently incapacitated from presiding at the proceedings or by reason of his death,
        subsection (1) shall have effect in relation to the incapacity or death of the Judge as it has effect in relation to any such incapacity or death of a presiding Judge as is mentioned in subsection (1)(a), but as if any reference to any party represented at the proceedings were a reference to any party who would have been so represented but for the Judge's incapacity or death.
        (5) In this section "Judge" in relation to any proceedings, includes —
        (a) any person acting in a judicial capacity in the proceedings; or
        (b) a person assisting at the proceedings as an assessor or an adviser appointed by virtue of section 108(1),
        and, in relation to any such person as is mentioned in paragraph (b), any reference to presiding at any proceedings shall be construed as including a reference to assisting at the proceedings.
        (6) Any sums required by the Registrar for making payments under this section shall be paid out of money provided by the Abu Dhabi Global Market.
        (7) In this section "taxation" means the process whereby the Court assesses the amount of costs recoverable in a claim.

      • 184. Fees

        (1) The Chief Justice may by rules prescribe fees payable in respect of anything dealt with by the Courts.
        (2) Rules made under this section may, in particular, contain provision about —
        (a) scales or rates of fees;
        (b) exemptions from fees;
        (c) deferral of payment of fees;
        (d) full or part remission of fees.
        (3) When including any provision in rules made under this section, the Chief Justice must have regard to the principle that access to the Courts must not be denied.
        (4) Court fees are recoverable summarily as a civil debt.
        (5) The Chief Justice must take such steps as are reasonably practicable to bring information about Court fees to the attention of persons likely to have to pay them.
        (6) "Court fees" means fees prescribed in rules made under this section.
        Amended on April 19, 2017

      • 185. Annual Report

        (1) As soon as practicable after each financial year, the Registrar must prepare a report about the business of the Courts during that year and give a copy of that report to —
        (a) the Chief Justice; and
        (b) the Board.
        (2) Each of the following is a "financial year" for the purposes of this section —
        (a) the period which begins with the date on which this section comes into force and ends with the following 31 December;
        (b) each successive period of 12 months.